A cirkon (U-Th)/He kormeghatározás módszertani alapjai és alkalmazása fiatal (<1 Ma) vulkánkitörések datálására

  • Kata Molnár ELTE-TTK, Kőzettan-Geokémiai Tanszék, e-mail: mkata90@gmail.com
  • István Dunkl Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum, Georg-August Universität, Göttingen
  • Szabolcs Harangi ELTE-TTK, Kőzettan-Geokémiai Tanszék
  • Réka Lukács MTA-ELTE Vulkanol´ógiai Kutatócsoport
Kulcsszavak: (U-Th)/He geochronology, disequilibrium dating, zircon, Carpathian-Pannonian Region, Quaternary

Absztrakt

A fiatal vulkánkitörések kormeghatározása sokszor igen nagy nehézségbe ütközik a konvencionálisan használt módszerek időbeli korlátai (pl.: radiokarbon – ~50 ezer év a felső korhatár; K-Ar – ~1 millió év a rutinmérések alsó korhatára), vagy a méréshez szükséges megfelelő ásványok (pl. leucit, szanidin), valamint szenesedett növénymaradványok hiányában. Az U-Th mérésekkel kiegészített cirkon (U-Th)/He geokronológia többek között erre a kritikus időintervallumra kínál megoldási lehetőséget. Alacsony záródási hőmérséklete (~150-180 °C) miatt képes a kitörés időpontjáról direkt információt adni, továbbá nagy előnye az is, hogy a cirkon egy igen széleskörűen elterjedt akcesszórikus ásvány a legtöbb vulkáni kitörési termékben. Mindezekből kifolyólag az elmúlt évtized alatt a nemzetközi kutatások során egyre elterjedtebbé vált a módszer alkalmazása a fiatal (<1 millió év) kitörések datálására is, azonban a hazai kutatásokban csak kis mértékben jelent meg ugyanez a tendencia. Jelen munka célja, hogy az (U-Th)/He geokronológia elméleti és gyakorlati alapjairól, valamint fiatal vulkánkitörések kormeghatározása esetében történő alkalmazhatóságáról nyújtson egy részletes, magyar nyelvű összefoglalást.

Az alkalmazhatóság vizsgálatára a Kárpát-Pannon térség legfiatalabb vulkánkitörésének (Csomád, Dél-Hargita) környezetében megtalálható, ahhoz kapcsolódó kitörési termékeket választottunk. Ezek a Nagy-Hegyes andezit lávadómja és a bükszádi piroklaszt-ár üledék, amelyekre 843 ± 27 ezer (Nagy-Hegyes felépülése) és 32,6 ± 1,0 ezer évet (bükszádi réteget létrehozó kitörés) kaptunk eredményül. A kiválasztott lelőhelyek mintáin keresztül jól szemléltethető, hogy miként történik az (U-Th)/He kormeghatározás, hogyan követik egymást az egyes lépések, amíg eljutunk a mért adattól a végleges koreredményig. Ezek a képződmények jó példát szolgáltatnak a módszer alkalmazhatóságának bemutatására fiatal (<1 millió év) vulkánkitörések kormeghatározására.

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