How do various types of regions attract creative industries? Comparison of metropolitan, old industrial and rural regions in Czechia

  • Jan Ženka Department of Human Geography and Regional Development, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava
  • Ondřej Slach Department of Human Geography and Regional Development, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava
Keywords: creative industries, localisation, spatial distribution, metropolitan regions, old industrial regions, rural regions, Czechia


In this paper we aim to describe and explain current spatial distribution of creative industries in Czechia. We ask to what extent are localisation patterns of creative industries influenced by specific local contexts. Therefore, we employed a typology of regions (close to local labour areas) that may explain spatial distribution of creative industries: metropolitan cores, metropolitan hinterlands, old industrial regions, urban and rural regions. We use general linear models combining the regional typology as a fixed factor and four covariates – employment density, density of cultural industries, mean firm size in creative industries and diversity of economic activities. We employed horizontal localisation quotient of regional employment in creative industries for the year 2014 as a dependent variable. Our main finding is that the regional typology explains a higher share of variability of the dependent variable (relative specialisation in creative industries) than any other explanatory variable. However, after exclusion of metropolitan cores, the model lost a significant amount of its explanatory power. Urban size/density and position in urban hierarchy are the key explanatory variables. We found only limited empirical evidence that regional contexts affect localisation of CI – regions of similar population/economic size do not differ significantly in spatial concentration of CI.


Berg, S.H. and Hassink, R. 2014. Creative industries from an evolutionary perspective: A critical literature review. Geography Compass 8. (9): 653–664.

Bertacchini, E.E. and Borrione, P. 2013. The geography of the Italian creative economy: The special role of the design and craft-based industries. Regional Studies 47. (2): 135–147.

Birch, K., Mackinnon, D. and Cumbers, A. 2010. Old industrial regions in Europe: a comparative assessment of economic performance. Regional Studies 44. (1): 35–53.

Blažek, J. and Bečicová, I. 2016. The takeover of Prague's banking cluster by multinational groups from an evolutionary perspective. Geografie 121. (2): 254–278.

Boix, R., Hervás‐Oliver, J.L. and Miguel‐Molina, D. 2015. Micro‐geographies of creative industries clusters in Europe: From hot spots to assemblages. Papers in Regional Science 94. (4): 753–772.

Boschma, R.A. and Lambooy, J.G. 1999. Evolutionary economics and economic geography. Journal of Evolutionary Economics 9. (4): 411–429.

Brazanti, C. 2015. Creative clusters and district economies: Towards a taxonomy to interpret the phenomenon. European Planning Studies 23. (7): 1401–1418.

Cerisola, S. 2018. Multiple creative talents and their determinants at the local level. Journal of Cultural Economics 42. (2): 243–269.

Ciarli, T., Meliciani, V. and Savona, M. 2012. Knowledge dynamics, structural change and the geography of business services. Journal of Economic Surveys 26. (3): 445–467.

Ciccone, A. and Hall, R.E. 1996. Productivity and the density of economic activity. American Economic Review 86. (1): 54–70.

Cruz, S.S. and Teixeira, A.A.C. 2015. The neglected heterogeneity of spatial agglomeration and colocation patterns of creative employment: evidence from Portugal. Annals of Regional Science 54. 143–177. CSO 2009. Register of economic subjects in selected production industries. Prague, Czech Statistical Office.

CSO 2014. Register of economic subjects in selected production industries. Prague, Czech Statistical Office.

CSO 2018. Public database. Prague, Czech Statistical Office.

Danko, L., Bednář, P. and Matošková, J. 2017. Managers' activities within cultural and creative clusters: an essential element for cluster development in the Visegrád countries. Creativity Studies 10. (1): 26–42.

Dostál, P. and Hampl, M. 1994. Changing economic base of Prague: towards new organizational dominance. In Development and Administration of Prague. Eds.: Barlow, M., Dostál, P. and Hampl, M., Amsterdam, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Sociale Geografie, 29–46.

Duranton, G. and Puga, D. 2005. From sectoral to functional urban specialisation. Journal of Urban Economics 57. (2): 343–370.

Escalona-Orcao, A.I., Escolano-Utrilla, S., Sáez- Pérez, L.A. and Sánchez-Valverde Garcia, B. 2016. The location of creative clusters in non-metropolitan areas: A methodological proposition. Journal of Rural Studies 45. 112–122.

Farhauer, O. and Kröll, A. 2012. Diversified specialisation – going one step beyond regional economics' Ženka, J. and Slach, O. Hungarian Geographical Bulletin 67 (2018) (3) 239–257. 255 specialisation-diversification concept. Jahrbuch für Regionalwissenschaft 32. (1): 63–84.

Felton, E., Collis, C. and Graham, P. 2010. Making connections: creative industries networks in outer-suburban locations. Australian Geographer 41. (1): 57–70.

Fingleton, B., Igliori, D.C. and Moore, B. 2004. Employment growth of small high-technology firms and the role of horizontal clustering: Evidence from computing services and R&D in Great Britain, 1991–2000. Urban Studies 41. (4): 773–799.

Gallego, J. and Maroto, A. 2015. The specialization in knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) across Europe: permanent co-localization to debate. Regional Studies 49. (4): 644–664.

Gibson, C. and Kong, L. 2005. Cultural economy: a critical review. Progress in Human Geography 29. (5): 541–561.

Gong, H. and Hassink, R. 2017. Exploring the clustering of creative industries. European Planning Studies 25. (4): 583–600.

Grabher, G. 2002. Cool projects, boring institutions: temporary collaboration in social context. Regional Studies 36. (3): 205–214.

Gregory, J. and Rogerson, C. 2018. Suburban creativity: The geography of creative industries in Johannesburg. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series 39. (39): 31–52.

Grodach, C., Currid-Halkett, E., Foster, N. and Murdoch, J. 2014. The location patterns of artistic clusters: A metro-and neighborhood-level analysis. Urban Studies 51. (13): 2822–2843.

Growe, A. 2012. Raummuster unterschiedlicher Wissensformen. Der Einfluss von Transaktionskosten auf Konzentrationsprozesse wissensintensiver Dienstleister im deutschen. Raumforschung und Raumordnung 70. (3): 175–190.

Hampl, M. 2005. Geografická organizace společnosti v České republice: transformační procesy a jejich obecný kontext (Geographic organization of the society in the Czech Republic: transformation processes and their general contex). Praha, Demo Art.

Hampl, M. and Marada, M. 2015. Sociogeografická regionalizace Česka (Socio-geographic regionalization of Czechia). Geografie 120. (3): 397–421.

Hardy, J., Micek, G. and Capik, P. 2011. Upgrading local economies in Central and Eastern Europe? The role of business service foreign direct investment in the knowledge economy. European Planning Studies 19. (9): 1581–1591.

Henning, M., Stam, E. and Wenting, R. 2013. Path dependence research in regional economic development: Cacophony or knowledge accummulation? Regional Studies 47. (8): 1348–1362.

Hutton, T.A. 2004. The new economy of the inner city. Cities 21. (2): 89–108.

Ivan, I., Raabová, T., Slach, O. and Žáková, E. 2015. Kulturní a kreativní průmysly v Brně a v Ostravě: Specializovaná mapa s odborným obsahem (Cultural and creative industries in Brno and Ostrava: specialized map with a technical content). Praha, Institut umění − Divadelní ústav.

Jacobs, W., Koster, H.R. and van Oort, F. 2014. Coagglomeration of knowledge-intensive business services and multinational enterprises. Journal of Economic Geography 14. (2): 443–475.

Keeble, D. and Nachum, L. 2002. Why do business service firms cluster? Small consultancies, clustering and decentralization in London and Southern England. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 27.(1): 67–90.

Krätke, S. 2007. Metropolisation of the European economic territory as a consequence of increasing specialisation of urban agglomerations in the knowledge economy. European Planning Studies 15. (1): 1–27.

Lazzeretti, L., Boix, R. and Capone, F. 2008. Do creative industries cluster? Mapping creative local production systems in Italy and Spain. Industry and Innovation 15. (5): 549–567.

Lazzeretti, L., Capone, F. and. Boix, R. 2012. Reasons for clustering of creative industries in Italy and Spain. European Planning Studies 20. (8): 1243–1262.

Lee, N. 2014. The creative industries and urban economic growth in the UK. Environment and Planning A 46. (2): 455–470.

Lorenzen, M. and Frederiksen, L. 2008. Why do cultural industries cluster? Localisation, urbanization, products and projects. In Creative Cities, Cultural Clusters and Local Economic Development. Eds.: Cooke, P. and Lazzeretti, L., Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 155–179.

Maier, K. and Franke, D. 2015. Trendy prostorové sociálně-ekonomické polarizace v Česku 2001–2011 (Trends in spatial socio-economic polarisation in the Czech Republic 2001–2011). Czech Sociological Review 51. (1): 89–124.

Maillat, D. 1998. Innovative milieux and new generations of regional policies. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development 10. (1): 1–16.

Martin, R. and Sunley, P. 2006. Path dependence and regional economic evolution. Journal of Economic Geography 6. (4): 395–437.

Martinát, S., Navrátil, J., Hollander, J.B., Trojan, J., Klapka, P., Klusáček, P. and Kalok, D. 2018. Re-reuse of regenerated brownfields: Lessons from an Eastern European post-industrial city. Journal of Cleaner Production 188. 536–545.

Martinez‐Fernandez, C., Audirac, I., Fol, S. and Cunningham‐Sabot, E. 2012. Shrinking cities: Urban challenges of globalization. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 36. (2): 213–225.

Massey, D. 1984. Spatial divisions of labour: Social structures and the geography of production. Basingstoke, Macmillan.

Meijers, E.J. and Burger, M.J. 2017. Stretching the concept of 'borrowed size'. Urban Studies 54. (1): 269–291.

Merino, F. and Rubalcaba, L. 2013. Are knowledgeintensive services highly concentrated? Evidence from European regions. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 104. (2): 215–232.

Mossig, I. 2011. Regional employment growth in the cultural and creative industries in Germany 2003–2008. European Planning Studies 19. (6): 967–990.

Müller, K., Rammer, C. and Trüby, J. 2009. The role of creative industries in industrial innovation. Innovation 11. (2): 148–168.

Murphy, E., Fox‐Rogers, L. and Redmond, D. 2015. Location decision making of "creative" industries: The media and computer game sectors in Dublin, Ireland. Growth and Change 46. (1): 97–113.

Musil, J. 1993. Changing urban systems in postcommunist societies in Central Europe: analysis and prediction. Urban Studies 30. (6): 899–905.

Musterd, S. and Gritsai, O. 2010. Conditions for 'Creative Knowledge Cities'. Findings from a comparison between 13 European metropolises. 'Going Creative' – an option for all European cities? ACRE Report WP9. Amsterdam, AISSR.

Musterd, S., Bontje, M.A., Chapain, C., Kovács, Z. and Murie, A. 2007. Accommodating creative knowledge. A literature review from a European perspective. (ACRE wp; No. 1). Amsterdam, Amsterdam Institute for

Novotný, L., Hruška, V., Egedy, T. and Mazur, M. 2015. Defining rural areas of Visegrad countries. Studia obszarow wiejskich / Rural Studies 39. 21–33.

Parr, J.B. 2002. Agglomeration economies: ambiguities and confusions. Environment and Planning A 34. (4): 717–731.

Plum, O. and Hassink, R. 2011. Comparing knowledge networking in different knowledge bases in Germany. Papers in Regional Science 90. (2): 355–371.

Polese, M. 2012. The arts and local economic development: can a strong arts presence uplift local economies? A study of 135 Canadian cities. Urban Studies 49. (8): 1811–1835.

Power, D. 2011. Priority sector report: creative and cultural industries. The European Cluster Observatory, European Commision.

Puga, D. 2010. The magnitude and causes of agglomeration economies. Journal of Regional Science 50. (1): 203–219.

Rehák, Š. and Chovanec, M. 2012. Exploring spatial patterns of creative industries with firm level micro geographic data. Region Direct 2. 10–35.

Rodríguez-Pose, A. and Fitjar, R.D. 2013. Buzz, archipelago economies and the future of intermediate and peripheral areas in a spiky world. European Planning Studies 21. (3): 355–372.

Rumpel, P., Slach, O. and Koutský, J. 2010. Creative Industries in Spatial Perspective in the Old Industrial Moravian-Silesian Region. E+M Ekonomie a Management 8. (4): 30–46.

Scott, A.J. 2010. Cultural economy and the creative field of the city. Geografiska Annaler: series B, Human Geography 92. (2): 115–130.

Šimon, M. 2017. Multi-scalar geographies of polarisation and peripheralisation: A case study of Czechia. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series 37. (3): 125–137.

Slach, O. and Ženka, J. 2017. Post-Crisis Spatial Development of Creative Industries: Evidence from Czechia. In Creative Industries in Europe: Creative Industries in Europe Drivers of New Sectoral and Spatial Dynamics. Eds.: Chapain, C. and Stryjakiewicz, T., Cham, Springer International Publishing, 201–226.

Slach, O., Bosák, V., Ženka, J. and Pavlík, A. 2018. Vznik a role znalostně náročných obchodních služeb ve starých průmyslových regionech: perspektiva evoluční ekonomické geografie (Birth and role of knowledge-intensive business services in old industrial regions: a perspective of evolutionary economic geography). In Rozmístění služeb v Česku. Eds.: Ženka, J. and Slach, O., Ostrava, En Face, 98–123.

Slach, O., Ivan, I., Ženka, J. and Sopkuliak, A. 2015. Intra-urban patterns of creative industries in polycentric city. GeoScape 9. (1): 1–16.

Slach, O., Koutský, J., Novotný, J. and Ženka, J. 2013. Creative Industries in the Czech Republic: A Spatial Perspective. Ekonomie a Management 6. (4): 14–28.

Spencer, G.M. 2015. Knowledge neighbourhoods: Urban form and evolutionary economic geography. Regional Studies 49. (5): 883–898.

Stam, E., De Jong, J.P. and Marlet, G. 2008. Creative industries in the Netherlands: Structure, development, innovativeness and effects on urban growth. Geografiska Annaler: series B, Human Geography 90. (2): 119–132.

Storper, M. 2013. Keys to the city: How economics, institutions, social interaction, and politics shape development. Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Storper, M. and Venables, A.J. 2004. Buzz: face-toface contact and the urban economy. Journal of Economic Geography 4. (4): 351–370.

Sucháček, J. and Baránaek, P. 2013. Largest enterprises in the Czech Republic: A spatio-temporal perspective. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis 60. (7): 329–336.

Sucháček, J., Skaličková, J. and Široký, J. 2017. Managerial decision-making on the location of banking headquarters in the Czech Republic. GeoScape 11. (2): 76–83.

Sýkora, L. and Ouředníček, M. 2007. Sprawling postcommunist metropolis: commercial and residential suburbanisation in Prague and Brno, the Czech Republic. In Employment deconcentration in European metropolitan areas: Market forces versus planning regulations. Eds.: Razin, E., Dijst, M. and Vázquez, C., Dordrecht, Springer, 209–233.

Tödtling, F. and Trippl, M. 2005. One size fits all? Towards a differentiated regional innovation policy approach. Research Policy 34. (8): 1203–1219.

Tomczak, P. and Stachowiak, K. 2015. Location patterns and location factors in cultural and creative industries. Quaestiones Geographicae 34. (2): 7–27.

Townsend, L., Wallace, C., Fairhurst, G. and Anderson, A. 2017. Broadband and the creative industries in rural Scotland. Journal of Rural Studies 54. 451–458.

Van Winden, W. and Carvalho, L. 2016. Urbanize or perish? Assessing the urbanization of knowledge locations in Europe. Journal of Urban Technology 23. (1): 53–70.

Viturka, M., Pařil, V., Tonev, P., Šašinka, P. and Kunc, J. 2017. The metropolisation processes – A case of Central Europe and the Czech Republic. Prague Economic Papers 26. (5): 505–522.

Wood, S. and Dovey, K. 2015. Creative multiplicities: Urban morphologies of creative clustering. Journal of Urban Design 20. (1): 52–74.

Ženka, J. and Slach, O. eds. 2018. Rozmístění služeb v Česku (Spatial distribution of services in Czechia). Ostrava, En Face.

Ženka, J., Novotný, J., Slach, O. and Ivan, I. 2017a. Spatial distribution of knowledge-intensive business services in a small post-communist economy. Journal of the Knowledge Economy 8. (2): 385–406.

Ženka, J., Slach, O. and Sopkuliak, A. 2017b. Typology of Czech non-metropolitan regions based on their principal factors, mechanisms and actors of development. Geografie 122. (3): 281–309.

Ženka, J., Pavlík, A. and Slach, O. 2017c. Resilience of metropolitan, urban and rural regions: a Central European perspective. GeoScape 11. (1): 25–40.

How to Cite
Ženka, J., & Slach, O. (2018). How do various types of regions attract creative industries? Comparison of metropolitan, old industrial and rural regions in Czechia. Hungarian Geographical Bulletin, 67(3), 239-257.