Spatial analysis of changes and anomalies of intense rainfalls in Hungary

  • Gergely Jakab Geographical Institute, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences ; Institute of Geography and Geoinformatics, University of Miskolc, Miskolc, Hungary ; Department of Environmental and Landscape Geography, ELTE University, Budapest, Hungary
  • Tibor Bíró Faculty of Water Sciences, Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Management, National University of Public Service, Baja, Hungary
  • Zoltán Kovács Department of Physical Geography and Geoinformatics, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Ádám Papp Department of Physical Geography and Geoinformatics, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
  • Ninsawat Sarawut Department of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (RS-GIS), Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok
  • Zoltán Szalai Geographical Institute, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest ; Department of Environmental and Landscape Geography, ELTE University, Budapest, Hungary
  • Balázs Madarász Geographical Institute, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest
  • Szilárd Szabó Department of Physical Geography and Geoinformatics, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
Keywords: extreme precipitation, climate change, soil erosion, flash flood, pluvial flood


Extreme precipitation events can trigger flash flood, mass movements, pluvial flood and accelerated soil erosion. As soil structures are highly degraded due to intensive improper cultivation water infiltration can considerably decrease during the vegetation period. Additional changes in canopy coverage on the soil surface cause relevant variability in infiltration and hence vulnerability against runoff related disasters. Most researchers agree that the frequency of extreme precipitations increases, however, in the Carpathian Basin the uncertainties are quite high. This study aims to compare daily maximum mean precipitation amounts (MMPA) predicted by the Goda-method for June and August as the most probable months of extremities. We used the CarpatClim database as input and predicted MMPAs for two periods, 1960–1985 and 1986–2010. The Goda-method uses monthly data and calculates daily results on given probability. A general increase was found between the first and second half of the period regarding daily maximum precipitation amount in both investigated months. For August the 1-day precipitation amount increased from 56.1 mm to 61.8 mm, whereas 6-days amount from 93.8 mm to 103.2 mm at 1 per cent probability (r = 0.53; p < 0.001). Beyond this change, relevant spatial differences were found. Comparing the macro regions plains had lower increase compared to the mountains, whereas the highest increase was at the. The most endangered location is the southern part of the Transdanubian Hills where parallel with the intensive increase in MMPA both in June and August the environmental conditions such as loose parent material and the high percentage of crop fields also emphasize the potential hazard.


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How to Cite
Jakab, G., Bíró, T., Kovács, Z., Papp, Ádám, Sarawut, N., Szalai, Z., Madarász, B., & Szabó, S. (2019). Spatial analysis of changes and anomalies of intense rainfalls in Hungary. Hungarian Geographical Bulletin, 68(3), 241-253.