GDPR and Religious Freedoms (With Insight Into Ronald Dworkin and Competing Rights)
In this article, the author explains that important privacy laws are not by any means absolute and unconditional. Like other rights in contemporary democratic society, they often clash with other rights (and duties), which are usually resolved by balancing. The GDPR and its direct application influence various situations (not originally and initially planned) in which requests on the basis of the right ‘to be forgotten’ cause or can cause problems for religious institutions (religious communities) when they are pressed by some citizens to implement erasure from church books and records. The author explains why this cannot be done and that religious communities cannot be treated in the same manner as business entities. Moreover, such requests can cause harm to religious freedoms and also jeopardize proper functioning of the state bodies, since in many countries, church books are not only historical but also public documents. On a theoretical level, the author examines Dworkin’s teachings on conflicting rights and values and, by using his methodology, concludes that the religious rights of citizens belong to the group of rights that require specific and more persistent protection.
Aleinikoff, A. (1987) ‘Constitutional Law in the Age of Balancing’, Yale Law Journal, 96(5) pp. 943–100; https://doi.org/10.2307/796529.
Doe, N. (2011) Law and Religion in Europe. A Comparative Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press; https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604005.001.0001.
Dworkin, R. (2013) Is Democracy Possible Here? (Principles of the New Political Debate). Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Bajs, D., Savić, V-I. (1998) ‘Sveta Stolica i Država Vatikanskoga grada’, Pravnik, časopis za pravna i društvena pitanja, 33(67–68), pp. 79–95.
Diggelmann, O., Cleis, M. N. (2014) ‘How the Right to Privacy Became a Human Right’, Human Rights Law Review, 14(3), pp. 441–458; https://doi.org/10.1093/hrlr/ngu014.
Guastini, R. (2016) Sintaksa prava. Zagreb: Nakalada Breza.
Möller, K. (2017) ‘Dworkin's Theory of Rights in the Age of Proportionality’, LSE Legal Studies Working Paper, 2017(11), pp. 1–17.
Puppinck, G. (2011) ‘The case of Lautsi v. Italy: a synthesis’ [Online]. Available at: https://classic.iclrs.org/content/blurb/files/ARTICLE_LAUTSI_PUPPINCK_English_BYU_Law_Review.pdf (Accessed: 15 July 2022).
Savić, V-I. (2015) ‘Prikaz knjige’ in Leiter, B. (ed.) Why Tolerate Religion?/Europski seklularni identiteti. Zagreb: Biblioteka politička misao, Fakultet političkih znanosti, 2015, pp. 145–159.
Savić, V-I. (2018) ‘State and Church in Croatia’ in Robbers, G. (ed.) State and Church in the European Union. 3rd edn. Baden-Baden: Nomos, pp. 239–240; https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845296265-239.
Savić, V-I. (2019) ‘Tribina Hkz „MI”: Dr. SC. Vanja – Ivan Savić:postoji Li Mjesto Za Religiju U Javnom Životu? Pravna Zaštita Vjerskog Života U Hrvatskoj I Svijetu’ [Online]. Available at: https://miportal.hr/2019/05/22/tribina-hkz-mi-pravna-zastita-vjerskog-zivota-u-hrvatskoj-i-svijetu/ (Accessed: 15 July 2022).
Savić, V-I. (2020) ‘It works better if it is not too secularised: the Croatian constitutional model for regulating state–church relations’ in Babie, P.T., Rochow, N. G, Scharffs, B. G. (eds.) Freedom of Religion or Belief, Creating the Constitutional Space for Fundamental Freedoms. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 260–282; https://doi.org/10.4337/9781788977807.00019.
Savić, V-I., Škvorc, M. (2020) ‘Keeper of Tradition and Divine Law in the times of identity crisis: Catholic Church and demands of GDPR in the Eu and Croatia’, Forum Canonicum de Instituto Superior de Direito Canonico, Univesidade Catolica Portuguesa Lisboa, 15(1), pp. 77–104.
Weiler, J. H. H. (no data) ‘Final oral argument, delivered in front of the European Court of Human Rights in Lautsi v. Italy’ [Online]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ioyIyxM-gnM (Accessed: 16 July 2022).
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union [Online]. Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:12012P/TXT (Accessed: 10 July 2022).
European Convention on Human Rights, Rome (1950) [Online]. Available at: https://www.echr.coe.int/documents/convention_eng.pdf (Accessed: 10 July 2022).
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of (16.12.1966) [Online]. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx (Accessed: 10 July 2022).
Punta del Este Declaration on Human Dignity for Everyone Everywhere, Uruguay (2018) [Online]. Available at: https://www.dignityforeveryone.org/introduction/ (Accessed: 10 July 2022).
Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation) [Online]. Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1530652545116&uri=CELEX:32016R0679 (Accessed: 3 July 2019).
Ugovor između Svete Stolice i Republike Hrvatske o suradnji na području odgoja i kulture (Education and Culture Treaty), 18.12.1996. Narodne novine/Međunarodni ugovori, National Gazette, International Treaties, No. 3/1997.
Ugovor o dušobrižništvu katoličkih vjernika pripadnika oružanih snaga i redarstvenih službi Republike Hrvatske (Military and Police Treaty), 18.12.1996. Narodne novine/Međunarodni ugovori, National Gazette, International Treaties, No. 3/1997.
Ugovor o gospodarskim pitanjima (Treaty on Economic Issues) 9.10.1998, Narodne novine/Međunarodni ugovori, National Gazette/International Treaties, No. 18/1998.
Ugovor o pravnim pitanjima (Treaty on Legal Issues), 18.12.1996. Narodne novine/Međunarodni ugovori, National Gazette, International Treaties, No. 3/1997.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) [Online]. Available at: https://www.un.org/en/about-us/universal-declaration-of-human-rights (Accessed: 10 July 2022).