The Rule of Law and Academic Freedom Between Personal Liberty and Public Order

Keywords: academic freedom, rule of law, personal liberty, public order


In this study, the author discusses the fundamental questions of academic freedom in terms of personal and institutional liberty and the developments that have led to the current position of academic freedom in the body of constitutional law. Academic honesty, integrity, and curiosity are at the core of this concept, which has to be protected by the state by all means possible and regulations. Simultaneously, the author outs academic freedom in the broader framework of the rule of law and explains that, as with every right, these liberties require certain responsibilities. This study also analyses situations in which academic freedom may conflict with other prevailing basic human rights, emphasising the necessity to have dialogues when academic freedom and public order collide. In such cases, balancing and proportionality are possible solutions to resolve the issue. However, this study is not a case law study and instead provides theoretical guidelines to those who seek to find ground orientation in the huge field of academic work


Academic Freedom (no date) New York University [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 22 May 2023).

Badamchi, D. K. (2022) ‘Academic Freedom; How to conceptualize and justify it? Philosophy and Social criticism’, Philosophy and Social Criticism, SAGE Journal, 48(4), pp. 619–630.

Bard, P. (2020) ‘The rule of law and academic freedom or the lack of it in Hungary’, European Political Science, 19(1), pp. 87–96 [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 22 July 2023);

Byse, C., Joughin, L. (1959) Tenure in American Higher Education. 1st edn. New York: Cornell Universit.

Dea, S. (2023) ‘A brief history of academic freedom’ University Affairs [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 24 April 2023).

Fuchs, R. F. (1963) ‘Academic Freedom – It’s Basic Philosophy, Function, And History, Law and Contemporary Problems’, Law and Contemporary Problems, 28(3), pp. 431–¬446 [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 24 April 2023).

Fuchs, R. (1993) ‘Academic Freedom – Its Basic Philosophy, Function and History’, Articles by Maurer Society [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 24 April 2023).

Lenard, R. (1948) ‘The Threat to Academic Freedom, Bulletin of the American Association of University Professors (1915-1955)’, American Association of University Professors, 34(4), pp. 704–710;

Moseley, A. (no date) ‘John Locke: Political Philosophy’, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 26 June 2023),

Online Library of Liberty (no date) Edmund Burke on liberty as “social” not “individual” liberty (1789) [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 26 June 2023).

Vujinović, M., I. (2021) ‘Ograničenja slobode izražavanja u republici Hrvatskoj u odnosu na međunarodno pravo, s posebnim osvrtom na presude Europskog suda’, Zbornik radova Pravnog fakulteta u Splitu, 58(3), pp. 967–988;

Moshman, D. (2017) ‘Academic Freedom as the Freedom to do Academic Work’, AAUP Journal of Academic Freedom, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 2017/8, pp. 9–10 [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 20 June 2023).

Radbruch, G. (1946) ‘Gesetzliches Unrecht und übergesetzliches Recht’, Süddeutsche Juristen-Zeitung, 1(5), pp. 105–108.

Savić, V. I. (2023) ‘Radbruch’s formula and the conscience of a Saint: Cardinal Alojzije V. Stepinac’, Studia z Prawa Wyznaniowego, 2023/26 [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 20 June 2023).

Savić, V. I. (2023) ‘The Right to Privacy in the European Context: Insight into Fundamental Issues’ in Marcin, W. (eds.) The Right to Privacy in the Digital Age. Miskolc: Central European Academic Publishing, pp. 47–75;

Savić, V. I. (2015) ‘Still Fighting God in the Public Arena: Does Europe Pursue the Separation of Religion and State Too Devoutly or Is It Saying It Does Without Really Meaning It?’, Brigham Young University Law Review, 2015/3, pp. 679–726.

Smith, A. (1982) ‘Economics of Freedom’ Foundation for Economic Education [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 26 June 2023).

Stachowiak-Kudła, M., Sina, W., Botelho, C. S., Bartha, I. (2023) ‘Academic Freedom as a Defensive Right’, Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 2023/15, pp. 161–190;

Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 24 July 2023).

Articles on Adam Smith (no date) [Online]. Available at: (Accessed:26 June 2023), John Montgomery, 1982.

Articles on Edmund Burke on liberty as “social” not “individual” liberty (1789) [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 26 June 2023).

How to Cite
SavićV.-I. (2023). The Rule of Law and Academic Freedom Between Personal Liberty and Public Order. Central European Journal of Comparative Law, 4(2), 259-276.