Creative capacity of European countries

  • Martin Alexy Department of Finance, Faculty of National Economy, University of Economics in Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Marek Káčer Credit Management Research Centre, Leeds University Business School, UK ; Department of Finance, Faculty of National Economy, University of Economics in Bratislava, Slovakia
  • Štefan Rehák Department of Public Administration and Regional Development, Faculty of National Economy, University of Economics in Bratislava, Slovakia
Keywords: creativity index, 3Ts concept, European comparison


In the paper4 we study creative capacity of 28 European countries in the period 2005–2014. We construct a creativity index based on the 3Ts concept of talent, technology and tolerance as the key components of the creativity. Our index is measured and calculated with both the cross-section and the time series dimensions, which is an important contribution compared to other studies. We have demonstrated relatively stable rankings of the countries in time, even though the creative capacity measured by our creativity index was gradually growing in time with varying rate of growth for individual countries. We have also shown evidence that the creative capacity is clustered geographically. The creativity index was compared to World happiness index, GDP per capita and Human development index. We have replicated earlier cross-sectional analyses and shown the relatively strong correlation. However, we show that the picture is different for changes within individual countries. Here we demonstrated lack of correlation between creativity and GDP per capita or World happiness index. JEL: O10, O30, O34, C10

4 The paper is an outcome of the research project Competitiveness, economic growth and firm survival (APVV-15-0322) supported by Slovak Research and Development Agency. The research is co-financed by the European Union.


Amabile, T.M. 1983. The social Psychology of Creativity. New York, Springer Verlag.

Asheim, B. 2009. Guest Editorial: Introduction to the Creative Class in European City Regions. Economic Geography 85. (4): 355-362.

Boschma, R. and Fritsch, M. 2009. Creative Class and Regional Growth: Empirical Evidence from Seven European Countries. Economic Geography 85. (4): 391-423.

Bowen, H.P., Sleuwaegen, L. and Moesen, W. 2006. A composite index of the creative economy with application to regional best practices. Leuven, Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School Working Paper Series.

Correia, C.M. and Costa, J.S. 2014. Measuring creativity in the EU member states. Investigaciones Regionales 30. 7-26.

Egedy, T. and Kovács, Z. 2009. The capacity and potentials of Budapest to attract creative economy. Hungarian Geographical Bulletin 58. (4): 281-294.

European Creative Hubs Network Project Evaluation Summary Report, May 2018. Brussels, European Commission.

European Parliament resolution P7_TA-2013-0368 on promoting the European cultural and creative sectors as sources of economic growth and jobs. Strasbourg, European Parliament, 12 September 2013.

Firdmuc, J. 2004. Migration and Regional Adjustment to Asymmetric Shocks in Transition Economies. Journal of Comparative Economics 32. (2): 230-247.

Florida, R. 2002. The Rise of the Creative Class: And How Its Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. New York, Basic Books.

Florida, R. 2005. The Flight of the Creative Class: The New Global Competition for Talent. New York, Harper Business.

Florida, R. 2017. The new urban crisis: How our cities are increasing inequality, deepening segregation, and failing the middle class - and what we can do about it. New York, Basic Books.

Florida, R. and Tinagli, I. 2004. Europe in the Creative Age. Demos February, 2004.

Florida, R., Mellander, C. and King, K. 2015. The Global Creativity Index. Toronto, Martin Prosperity Institute.

Florida, R., Mellander, C. and Stolarick, K. 2008. Inside the black box of regional development: Human capital, the creative class and tolerance. Journal of Economic Geography 8. 615-49.

Florida, R., Mellander, C., Stolarick, K., Silk, K., Matheson, Z. and Hopgood, M. 2011. Creativity and Prosperity: The Global Creativity Index. Toronto, Martin Prosperity Institute.

Glaeser, E.L. 2004. Review of Richard Florida's The rise of the creative class. Regional Science and Urban Economics 35. 593-96.

Good Practice Report: Towards More Efficient Financial Ecosystems. Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2016.

Hassan, I. and Tucci, C.L. 2010. The innovation-economic growth nexus: Global evidence. Research Policy 39. (10): 1264-1276.

Hoelscher, M. and Schubert, J. 2015. Potential and Problems of Existing Creativity and Innovation Indices. Creativity Research Journal 27. (1): 1-15.

Hui, D., Chun Hung, N.G., Mok, P., Fong, N., Chin, W.K. and Yuen, Ch. 2004. A study on Hong Kong Creativity Index. Commissioned by the Home Affairs Bureau. Hong Kong, The Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Kern, P. and Runge, J. 2009. KEA briefing: towards a European creativity index. Part of the KEA's report 'The contribution of culture to creativity', conducted for the European Commission in 2008-2009. Brussels, KEA European Affairs.

Knudsen, B., Florida, R., Gates, G. and Stolarick, K. 2007. Urban density, creativity, and innovation. Working paper. Toronto, The Martin Prosperity Institute, University of Toronto.

Krätke, S. 2010. 'Creative Cities' and the Rise of the Dealer Class: A Critique of Richard Florida's Approach to Urban Theory. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 34. 835-853.

Long, H. 2014. An Empirical Review of Research Methodologies and Methods in Creativity Studies (2003-2012). Creativity Research Journal 26. (4): 427-438.

Lundvall, B.A. and Johnson, B. 1994. The learning economy. Journal of Industry Studies 1. (2): 23-42.

Markussen, A. 2006. Urban Development and the Politics of a Creative Class: Evidence from the Study of Artists. Environment and Planning 38. (10): 1921-1940.

Marlet, G. and van Woerkens, C. 2004. Skills and creativity in a cross-section of Dutch cities. Discussion Paper Series 04-29. Utrecht, Koopmans Research Institute.

Martin, L. and Wilson, N. 2016. Opportunity, discovery and creativity: A critical realist perspective. International Small Business Journal 34. (3): 261-275.

Mcdowell, L. 2017. The Ideal Worker: Inclusion and Exclusion in a Knowledge-based City: The Case of Oxford, UK. In Inequalities in Creative Cities: Issues, Approaches, Comparisons. Eds.: Gerhard, U., Hoelscher, M. and Wilson, D., New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 79-105.

McGranahan, D. and Wojan, T. 2007. Recasting the creative class to examine growth: Processes in rural and urban counties. Regional Studies 41. 197-216.

McLean, H. 2014. Digging into the creative city: A feminist critique. Antipode 46. (3): 669-690.

Nathan, G. 2007. Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee CCMI/137 on Creative and cultural industries - a European asset to be used in global competition. Brussels, EESC, 16 September 2015.

OECD 2008. Handbook on Constructing Composite Indicators: Methodology and User Guide. Paris, OECD.

Peck, J. 2005. Struggling with the Creative Class. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 29. 740-770.

Pratt, A.C. 2008. Creative cities: The Cultural Industries and the Creative Class. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 90. 107-117.

Rehák, Š. 2014. Creative class and creative cities: A theoretical concept and its limits. Sociológia 46. (5): 599-619).

Runco, M.A. 2004. Creativity. Annual Review of Psychology 55. 657-687.

Schumpeter, J.A. 1911. Economic development. Translated edition by Opies, R. and Elliot, J.E., Transaction publishers, 1983.

Smith, A. 1776. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Ed.: Soares, S.M., MetaLibri Digital Library, 2007.

Weisnberg, R.W. 1988. Problem solving and creativity. In The nature of Creativity. Ed.: Stemberg, R.J., Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 148-176.

Wilson, D. 2017. Making Creative Cities in the Global West: The New Polarization and Ghettoization in Cleveland, USA, and Glasgow, UK. In Inequalities in Creative Cities: Issues, Approaches, Comparisons, Eds.: Gerhard, U., Hoelscher, M. and Wilson, D., New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 107-127.

How to Cite
AlexyM., KáčerM., & Rehák Štefan. (2018). Creative capacity of European countries. Hungarian Geographical Bulletin, 67(3), 201-222.