Aviation safety ranking values and bird species at Trabzon International Airport, Türkiye
The study investigated bird species at Trabzon International Airport (TIA) in Türkiye and their Aviation Safety Ranking Values (ASRV). During the study period between February 2021 and February 2022, 75 observations were carried out using direct and indirect observation methods (camera traps, bird nests, eggs, feathers and; pellets) to identify species. As a result, 109 bird species were identified belonging to 39 families. Migration status of the observed birds ranged from overwintering (27), to summer visitors (26), residents (17), wintering and passage migrants (14), passage migrants (9), residents and wintering (8), residents and summer visitors (5), and residents and passage migrants (3). The bird hazard ranking system is based on bird size, average weights, flocking characteristics, and flight behaviour. According to the criteria of the ASRV, a total of 36 bird species at TIA with hazard levels of intermediate (3), high (4), and very high (5) were determined. Among the species identified, 25 weighed between 700 and 2200 grams. Wildlife professionals should be assigned to all airports to successfully control bird strikes and increase flight safety, and bird observations should be performed regularly.
Allan, J. R. (2002): The costs of bird strikes and bird strike prevention. Pp. 147–153. In: Clark, L., Hone, J., Shivik, J. A., Watkins, R. A., Vercauteren, K. C. & Yoder, J. K. (eds): Human conflicts with wildlife: economic considerations. Proceedings of the Third NWRC Special Symposium. – National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins,
Barras, S. C. & Dolbeer, R. A. (2000): Reporting bias in bird strikes at John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York, 1979–1998. – Proceedings of 25th International Bird Strike Committee, Amsterdam, pp. 17–21.
Başkaya, Ş. (1994): Observations on migratory birds in the eastern Karadeniz region. PhD Thesis. – K.T.Ü. Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Engineering, Trabzon, 227 pp.
Blokpoel, H. (1976): Bird hazards to aircraft. – Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada and the Publishing Center, Supply and Services, Toronto, 247 pp.
Çoban, R. & Bahar, İ. (2018): A research on wildlife management in aviation in Hamid Karzai International Airport (Kabul-Afghanistan). – Journal of Aviation 2(2): 87–104.
Desoky, A. A. S. (2014): A review of bird control methods at airports. – Global Journal of Science Frontier Research E 14: 41–50.
DGCA (2017): Activity report. Ankara: T.C. – Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure, Directorate General of Civil Aviation, Ankara, 230 pp.
Dukiya, J. & Gahlot, V. (2013): An evaluation of the effect of bird strikes on flight safety operations at international airport. – International Journal for Traffic and Transport Engineering 3: 16–33. https://doi.org/10.7708/ijtte.2013.3(1).02
FAA (2010): Some significant wildlife strikes to civil aircraft in the United States, January 1990–November 2009. Sandusky, USA: FAA Wildlife Strike Database U.S. – Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Wildlife Service’s, 126 pp.
Gleizer, H., Bar, P., Bahat, O., Groner, E. & Ovadia, O. (2005): The effect of habitat productivity and structure on bird spatial distribution in an airfield located at a semi-arid region. – Proceedings of 27th International Bird Strike Committee, Athens. p. 4.
Gülci, S. (2011): Effects of birds on flight safety at Trabzon international airport, Türkiye. Master Thesis. – K.T.Ü. Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Engineering, Trabzon, 120 pp.
Harrison, M. J., Gauthreaux, S. A., & Abron-Robinson, L. A. (1984): Proceedings, Wildlife Hazards to Aircraft Conference and Training Workshop. – Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Airport Standards, Charlston, 379 pp.
Hedenström, A. (1993): Migration by soaring or flapping flight in birds: The relative importance of energy cost and speed. – Biological Sciences 342: 1302. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1993.0164
Heinzel, H., Fitter, R. & Parsiov, J. (1995): Birds of Türkiye and Europe. – Natural Life Conservation Association, İstanbul, 384 pp.
ICAO (1987): Airport planning manual, master planning. Part 1. 2nd ed. – International Civil Aviation Organization, Montreal, 144 pp.
ICAO (2012): Airport services manual (Doc 9137). Part 3. Wildlife control and reduction. 4th ed. – International Civil Aviation Organization, Montreal, 56 pp.
ICAO (2018): Annex 14 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation Aerodromes. Vol. I. Aerodrome design and operations. – International Civil Aviation Organization, Montreal, 354 pp.
International Bird Strike Committee (2002): Best practices manual. An aviation guide to the management of wildlife hazards. – http://www.int-birdstrike.org/referenceInformation. [accessed 12 May 2022]
IUCN (2022): The IUCN Red list of threatened species. Version 2021-3. https://www.iucnredlist.org [accessed 5 May 2022]
Jonsson, L. (2006): Birds of Europe. – Eurolitho Spa.
Kahraman, H., Şeremet, T. & Hatinoğlu, B. (2016): Birds of the Eastern Black Sea Region. – Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks, Ankara, 416 pp.
Kiziroğlu, İ. (2009): Birds of Türkiye: Pocket book. – Ankabat Matbaası, Ankara, 534 pp.
Mallord, J. W., Dolman, P. M., Brown, A. F. & Sutherland, W. J. (2007): Linking recreational disturbance to population size in a ground-nesting passerine. – Journal of Applied Ecology 44: 185–195. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01242.x
Maragakis, I. (2009): Bird population trends and their impact on aviation safety 1999–2008. – European Aviation Safety Agency, 24 pp.
Morgenroth, C. (2003): Development of an index for calculating the flight safety relevance of bird species for an assessment of the bird strike hazard at airports. – Bird and Aviation 23: 1–7.
Robinson, A. P. (2005): Modelling the bird strike risk from hazardous birds attracted to restored mineral extraction sites. – Proceedings of 27th International Bird Strike Committee, Athens, 6 pp.
Shobakin, H. O. (2009): Bird prevention: Control techniques adopted by FAAN. – Ramp Safety Event, Mallam Aminu Kano International Airport, Kano, Nigeria, 23–35 pp.
Walvekar, V., Thorbole, C. K., Bhonge, P. & Lankarani, H. M. (2012): Birdstrike analysis on leading edge of an aircraft wing using a smooth particle hydrodynamics bird model. Pp. 77–87. – ASME 2010 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 1: Advances in Aerospace Technology. Vancouver. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2010-37667
Zhu, S., Tong, M. & Wang, Y. (2009): Experiment and numerical simulation of a full-scale aircraft windshield subjected to bird impact. – 50th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 17th Palm Springs, 2575 pp. https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2009-2575
Copyright (c) 2022 Alptuğ Sari, Ahmet Arpacık, Şağdan Başkaya, Ali Çelik
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Manuscripts must be solely the work of the author(s) stated, must not have been previously published elsewhere, and must not be under consideration by another journal. This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. The authors retain copyright and publishing rights without restrictions of papers published in Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae.